But these efforts are essential to add stability to production and avoid the recurrence of the great Bengal famine of the Indian sub-continent, or brown plant hopper catastrophe of Indonesia and the Philippines, or blast and cold damage experienced in the Republic of Korea and Japan during Most of the Asian countries that had not signed had sizeable public research investments for technology generation, which was seen as government support to feed the people.
Identifying the physiological factors causing differences in growth rate among rice genotypes seems fundamental to success in germplasm development for greater yield potential.
At current levels of N use efficiency, the rice world will require at least to double the 10 million tonnes of N fertilizer that are annually used for rice production. In fact, a net decline in the irrigated area may be expected if problems of salinization, waterlogging, and intensification-induced degradation of soil is not handled forthwith.
The need for designing regional programmes of action to enhance and sustain rice production and to attain durable food security and environmental protection in the Asia-Pacific Region was also recommended by an earlier FAO Expert Consultation FAO, The sharing, testing and utilization of technology and knowledge across national boundaries have to be facilitated by the CGIAR institutions and FAO through various networks supported by them Tran, Thus, this problem needs attention soon without any sense of short-term complacency.
Low-tillering genotypes are reported to have a larger proportion of high-density grains. Today varieties carrying this gene are cultivated in almost all the tropical rice growing countries. The NPT rice will be amenable to direct seeding and dense planting and, therefore, would increase land productivity significantly.
Brown plant hoppers, stem borers and gall midges are among the major insect-pests in rice production. Under these pressures in China, the rice area declined from 37 million ha in to 31 million ha in While the genetic reasons of stability in the performance may be difficult to understand, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and insensitivity to crop management practices are the major reasons.
Reduced tillering is thought to facilitate synchronous flowering, uniform panicle size, and efficient use of horizontal space Janoria, In the northern part of China, japonica hybrids are under cultivation.
With the movement from subsistence to a market-oriented economy, rainfed rice production may bring additional changes in many countries which depend on this ecosystem heavily and have no resources to convert rainfed to irrigated systems Pingali et al.
Given the long-term impact of GATT on increasing competitiveness among ecosystems, irrigated ecosystem may get 50 percent of the research share.
We are only at the beginning of a process that will transform our lives and societies to a much larger extent than all inventions of the last decades. So far irrigated rice which occupies about 57 percent of the area and produces 76 percent of total rice has helped double the rice production.
Approaches like differential regulation of a foreign gene in the new host for partitioning sucrose and starch in leaves, the antisense approach as used in potato, and transposable elements Ac and Ds from maize have opened up new vistas in breaking yield barriers Bennett et al. Yield decline may occur when management practices are held constant on intensive irrigated rice systems, owing to changes in soil properties and improper nutrient balance.
This trend has been felt by farmers in irrigated rice systems, and reported by Cassman et al. The success story of Bangladesh in becoming a self-sufficient country with stable yield by using Boro rice instead of deepwater rice is a case in point.
The development of more location specific technologies for crop management, Integrated Pest Management, Integrated Nutrient Management, technology transfer to further reduce the yield gap, and manpower development in appropriate areas would have to be handled by NARS.
Also upland rice cultivation has promoted soil erosion in the fields and clogged irrigation and drainage canals down stream.
Proper technology backed by policy support and political will is needed for addressing these issues. All the rice hybrids grown in India, Vietnam, the Philippines, and most in China are indica hybrids.
It is apparent that the next breakthrough in yield may be set in motion by the use of indica x tropical japonica and indica x NPT rice Virmani, The aforementioned challenges, along with the continuous rise in the energy cost and stricter environment regulations, have combined to emphasize the growing importance of the optimal planning and synthesis of a resource-efficient network of processes for the rice industry.
There is a need to identify and release stable yielding varieties even on a specific area basis, as against relatively less stable but on a wide area basis.
As mentioned earlier, these methods need to be fine-tuned for specific regions, ecosystems, cropping systems, and economic groups.
Two basic approaches may be used to solve this problem. Effective methods to help Malaysia out of difficulty Government: One of the principal limitations is the inability to fill all of the large number of spikelets.Rice can be contributed to food problems as well as poverty alleviation because millions of small farmers grow millions of hectares of rice in the Asian region and there are landless workers who generate some income by working on these farms.
60% of the global population and 90% of the world rice production is derived from the Asian continent. Sustainability of rice production: A Malaysian perspective. SUSTAINABILITY OF RICE PRODUCTION: A MALAYSIAN of rice production in Malaysia.
Malaysia has enhanced the production of rice in many ways to ensure food security and to meet the demand of population, but still there is many constraints involving rice industry. Rice production faced many constraints and one of. Rice Industry in Malaysia: Challenges, Policies and Implications (Dasar Agromakanan Negara, DAN) had highlighted that local rice production should be increased to ensure the country'sdemand in future.
However, to what extend this ensures food security in Malaysia was not supported empirically so far. The objective of this. It is worth mentioning also that red or wild rice has become a major problem of rice production in Malaysia, the Central Plain in Thailand and the Mekong Delta in Vietnam where direct seeding has been increasingly practiced.
Problems faced by rice industry in Malaysia Even though rice production in Malaysia showed a positive growth, rice production still faces many challenges, which are related to economic, social, technology, and the conformity to field infrastructure etc.Download