This should be a different person for each meeting. Park summarizes a study by McCauley in which structural conditions of the group were found to predict groupthink while situational conditions did not.
Scholars such as Janis and Raven attribute political and military fiascoes, such as the Bay of Pigs Invasionthe Vietnam Warand the Watergate scandalto the effect of groupthink. Manz and Sims conducted a study showing that autonomous work groups are susceptible to groupthink symptoms in the same manner as decisions making groups within businesses.
Leaders should absent themselves from many of the group meetings to avoid excessively influencing the outcome. One particularly relevant and popular arena in which groupthink is rarely studied is sports.
The negative impact of groupthink took place during the s as both companies released globalization expansion strategies. There was a recognized downside to group problem solving in that it takes groups more time to come to a decision and requires that people make compromises with each other.
This may have further increased the likelihood of groupthink. Aldag and Fuller thus suggest a new model called the general group problem-solving GGPS modelwhich integrates new findings from groupthink literature and alters aspects of groupthink itself. Roderick Kramer believed that, because scholars today have a more sophisticated set of ideas about the general decision-making process and because new and relevant information about the fiascos have surfaced over the years, a reexamination of the case studies is appropriate and necessary.
A number of factors such as shared illusions and rationalizations contributed to the lack of precaution taken by U. He also encouraged group members to discuss possible solutions with trusted members within their separate departments, and he even divided the group up into various sub-groups, to partially break the group cohesion.
For example, on November 7, the day before the election, The New York Times opined that Clinton then had "a consistent and clear advantage in states worth at least electoral votes. He devised ways of preventing groupthink: The situational conditions included group cohesion.
In the s, both companies introduced globalization strategies in which, according to Eaton, all eight symptoms of groupthink were present. Leaders should not express an opinion when assigning a task to a group. The most predominant symptom of groupthink was the illusion of invulnerability as both companies underestimated potential failure due to years of profitability and success during challenging markets.
Washington took action by warning officers stationed at Pearl Harborbut their warning was not taken seriously. Sociocognitive theory[ edit ] According to a new theory many of the basic characteristics of groupthink — e.
All effective alternatives should be examined. Group leaders should encourage rather than punish dissent. William Fulbrightattempted to present their objections to the plan, the Kennedy team as a whole ignored these objections and kept believing in the morality of their plan.
The group should invite outside experts into meetings. Both presidents sought the advice of experts outside of their political groups more than Janis suggested. When group thinking occurs, common sense and problem-solving abilities take a back seat in favor of group consensus.
General group problem-solving GGPS model[ edit ] Aldag and Fuller argue that the groupthink concept was based on a "small and relatively restricted sample" that became too broadly generalized. Navy and Army in Pearl Harbor also shared rationalizations about why an attack was unlikely.
Kennedy sought to avoid groupthink during the Cuban Missile Crisis using "vigilant appraisal. Other symptoms of groupthink include feelings of unanimity, self-censorship to spare group tension and the urge to block the criticism of others.
The United States had intercepted Japanese messages and they discovered that Japan was arming itself for an offensive attack somewhere in the Pacific Ocean.Janis suggested that groupthink tends to be the most prevalent in conditions where there is a high degree of cohesiveness, situational factors that contribute to deferring to the group (such as external threats, moral problems, difficult decisions), and structural issues (such as impartial leadership and group isolation).
After Irving Janis discovered groupthink in the early s, extensive efforts sprang up to combat it, leading to some strategies and tactics still in use.
Group members, for instance, should implement safeguards intended to make effective decisions instead of decisions protecting the group's cohesiveness. The Major Issue of Groupthink in Politics and in the Real World PAGES 1. WORDS View Full Essay.
More essays like this: Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Exactly what I needed. - Jenna Kraig, student @ UCLA. Wow. Most helpful essay resource ever! Jan 15, · The New Groupthink also shapes some of our most influential religious institutions. Many mega-churches feature extracurricular groups organized around every conceivable activity, from parenting to skateboarding to real estate, and expect worshipers to.
The Encyclopedia of Political Communication discusses the major theoretical approaches to the field, including direct and limited effects theories, agenda-se SAGE Business Cases Real world cases at your fingertips.
(). Groupthink in politics. In Encyclopedia of political communication (Vol. 1, pp. ). Thousand Oaks, CA:.
Groupthink is a term of the same order as the words in the newspeak vocabulary George Orwell used in his dismaying world of In that context, groupthink takes on an invidious connotation.
Exactly such a connotation is intended, since the term refers to a deterioration in mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgments as a result of .Download